当公务员幸福吗?

导语:你幸福吗?当新一年度国家公务员招考来临,央视的这个问题在很多人心中不约而同指向一个答案——考上公务员才是幸福的。公务员报考人数之高与录取比例之低再创纪录,各色社会调查结果也似乎都在共同佐证这个命题——公务员更幸福,事实真的如此吗?[网友评论]
升斗小民眼里,这是铁饭碗,是个人抵御各种社会风险的坚强后盾,更是官本位社会下,获取显赫身份的捷径。

稳定、稳定还是稳定
就业压力日益增大的时候,公务员成为年轻人最心仪的职业。“稳定可靠”是公务员最亮眼的标签。当前,除非大企业,在保障方面都不是很规范,公务员的优势就是有保障,可以满足年轻人对于稳定的要求。除了旱涝保收,比上不足不下有余的生活水平也让人感到满意。
“毕竟收入稳定,在亲戚朋友间也有面子。”《潇湘晨报》的采访中,李先生介绍,目前他每月的收入是3000多元,第一年的试用期没发奖金,但其他同事的奖金也不多,“相当于一个月的基本工资而已。”平时过节,单位会发一些油、米等,还有一些别的东西,“甚至有一次还发了卤牛肉。”虽然比起其他在企业工作的同学,李先生的工资并不高,但他认为:“这份工作稳定,而且相亲的话也会有优势。”

权力崇拜风气下,小办事员也处处高人一等
尽管社会在急剧转型,曾经牢牢禁锢人们的身份关系逐渐解体,人与人之间的关系,越来越多的是平等的契约关系,但是身份的意义在人们眼里始终无法忽视。 年轻的公务员,即使挣得少,也没什么像样职务,但是在乡亲们眼里,仍然要比那些在商界,学界已经取得一定成就的人,要更有身份,更值得尊敬。因为他们走的是“人间正道”,做官。[详细]

契约社会下,公务员不该有过多优越性,反而要因为手中烫手的权力而承担更多风险。

公务员就是享清福?
今年具体招录职位于日前正式公布。有媒体报道,此次招录的许多职位被称作“苦差事”,不仅多数要求两年基层工作经验,且不少岗位说明中明确备注有“常年出差”、“需要晚上值班”、“需常赴抢险救灾现场,条件艰苦”、“国家级贫困县”、“不提供宿舍”等要求。
这个让人感到新鲜的“最苦金饭碗”说法其实很矫情。现实是对于招录人数相对最多的公安等部门,工作的辛苦程度早已尽人皆知,警员亚健康状态非常普遍。更容易被忽视的是公检法,城管等部门由于工作特征,他们的公务员经常存在心理健康问题。
“一份报纸坐半天”的公务员生活在相当多部门早已成过去。[详细]

公务员收入更高?
《潇湘晨报》的采访中,2002年毕业于省内高校的经济法专业,2003年参加公务员考试并入职。到现在,陈广(化名)已经是一名有着近10年工龄的老公务员了。
现在,陈广的生活现状是,每个月拿3050元的固定工资,其中2000元还房贷。早上坐公交去上班,中午在食堂吃饭,晚上回家和老婆一起做饭吃。“工资低”成为他感觉不幸福的关键点。
这几乎是个普遍现象,公务员的收入并不像人们想象的那么高,甚至很多公务员家庭一直很拮据。支撑他们的信念,是可预期的发展空间和生活保障。[详细]

公务员更有前途?
公务员热看起来是公务员光明前途的有力佐证,但实际公务员热与当前市场的不规则不景气,民营企业的艰难现状更有关系。
人多位置有限的公安等大单位,升迁自然不易。其他部门如果不是有非常的才华与际遇,大部分人都会一眼望到退休,所谓光明的前途,更多的是旁人不知内情的羡慕。
与其他领域常见的刘翔跨栏式的发展,公务员都需要安于长跑的耐心。 [详细]

公务员更有尊严?
与普通人相比,公务员有时要承受更多的委屈,打落门牙活血吞。
普通人权利被侵害,当秋菊打官司理直气壮,公务员却会因为这难以割舍的身份和前程,而不敢或是不能争取像样的救济。
而单位内人事关系又相对市场化的企业复杂得多,每天如临深渊,如履薄冰式的工作状态,其实是公务员的常态。[详细]

公务员更有安全感?
刚刚过去的一个新闻:
科员到“副局长”升迁时间不到两年,头顶多个“杰出青年”的耀眼“光环”,年仅32岁的清华毕业生肖明辉,在5亿元的工程招标中大权独揽,收受1611万元的“好处费”,多次为他人谋取不正当经济利益。日前,肖明辉被海南省二中院依法判处无期徒刑,剥夺政治权利终身。
另外,据法学教授陈忠林的调查,司法人员的犯罪率是普通人的5倍。这一数据被广泛转载。其实并不难以理解,以司法人员为代表的国家工作人员,手中拥有的权力极大,而监督却非常有限,所以因权力滥用而生的职务犯罪自然居高不下。很多年轻的公务员早早断送了前程和人生。
近些年来,网络的监督力量在增强,愈发频繁爆出的不少网友大战官员的案例,被盯上、被人肉的公职人员,仕途会因一个微笑、几块手表或几十套房产而终结。[详细]
看起来是不利于公务员幸福的因素在增加,但实际上,国家公务员制度的成熟,依法行政的实现,阳光——对于乐于安稳生活的公务员来说,更有利于他们获得和享受幸福。

铁饭碗确实可能打破
公务员的退出机制正在建立。聘任制公务员在西方早就实施了,欧盟实行公务员改革的重要方向就是打破终身制,这也是一种趋势。中国多个省市在试点,目的就是要让“公务员”这个职业逐步变成一种普通职业,而不是特殊职业。今后,养老制度、退休制度等各方面,公务员将和其他职业逐步靠拢。
聘任制公务员只能在公务员队伍的一部分岗位中推行,很难在所有公务员中实行。原因很简单,行使公共权力的国家公务员队伍,担负着管理国家公共事务的重大职责,很难想象他们中的所有人都实行聘任制,实行双向选择,甚至可以随时走人,这样一个国家的治理就处在一种混乱的状态。目前世界上很少有国家将全体公务员都实行聘任制。
目前,江苏省主管部门正在研究制定《江苏省聘任制公务员管理试点办法》(试行),让一聘定终身的公务员制度,变成“合同工”。这份试行办法,江苏将有望在年内出台。
所谓聘任制公务员,是经省级以上主管部门批准,对不涉及国家秘密的专业性较强的职位和辅助性职位,可以按合同的方式聘用而产生,合同期一般1-5年,也就是说,公务员也可以是合同工。
事实上,深圳在2007年就开始试点聘任制公务员。今年和江苏同步试点聘任制公务员制度的,将有河南、四川、湖北等地。

依宪执政、依宪治国的趋势下,阳光将保障公务员幸福平安
依照现代政治的运行逻辑,世俗权力必须得到有效监督,因为“权力导致腐败,绝对权力则绝对腐败”,正如国务院总理温家宝所屡次申说的那样,只有强化制约监督,才能确保权力不被滥用。
彼时的公权机构,“三公”消费会被强势遏制,彼时的公职人员,家庭财产状况应当透明公开,权力会场不再沉睡,权力为权利服务且接受监督应成为常态。而权力得到监督的制度状态,对其执掌者、履行者而言,是真正的“苦差”,但也是最安全最稳定的状态。
最近微博上有人担心:“当下拼命挤进公务员队伍的年轻人,未来命运必然跟十年前的下岗国企工人一样,人到中年被体制抛弃,浑身没有一样市场需要的技能。” 这一天会来吗?希望这个问号埋在每一个已经或正在努力成为公务员的年轻人心里。

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